a1 Centre for Multiphase Processes, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia
a2 Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
In this study we report discovery of a new type of water bell. This is formed by impinging a vertical liquid jet on to the underside of a large horizontal flat plate. After impact, the liquid spreads radially along the plate before falling at an abrupt unspecified radius. This falling liquid may then coalesce to form a curtain which encloses a volume of air. When the flow rate of the impinging jet is altered from the value at initial formation, a pronounced hysteretic effect in the water bell shape can be observed. We present detailed observations of these new phenomena, including the size and nature of the flow underneath the plate and the shape of the liquid curtain. These observations are interpreted theoretically in a companion paper (Part 2, Button et al. vol. 649, 2010, pp. 45–68).
(Received November 06 2008)
(Revised November 09 2009)
(Accepted November 09 2009)