a1 Bristol Urological Institute, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
Benign and malignant prostate disease is common in older men and becomes more prevalent with age. Many seek medical help due to bother associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Some fear their LUTS are secondary to prostate cancer or seek advice regarding prostate cancer screening. Furthermore, prostate cancer is now the most common male cancer in the UK. However, not all prostate disease causes LUTS. Equally, not all LUTS are due to a disease of the prostate. Thorough clinical assessment is therefore required to identify urological from non-urological, and benign from malignant causes of LUTS. This review presents a description of the current terminology for diseases of the prostate, the essential clinical assessment and investigations, and a description of the many treatment options currently available for both benign and malignant prostate disease.
(Online publication February 18 2010)