Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

Research Articles

Neuropsychological performance following a history of multiple self-reported concussions: A meta-analysis


a1 Department of Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, James A. Haley VA, Tampa, Florida

a2 Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida

a3 Department of Psychiatry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida

a4 Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Tampa, Florida


Debate continues about the long-term neuropsychological impact of multiple mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI). A meta-analysis of the relevant literature was conducted to determine the impact of having a history of more than one self-reported MTBI (versus just one MTBI) across seven cognitive domains, as well as symptom complaints. The analysis was based on 8 studies, all conducted with athletes, involving 614 cases of multiple MTBI and 926 control cases of a single MTBI. The overall effect of multiple MTBI on neuropsychological functioning was minimal and not significant (d = 0.06). However, follow-up analyses revealed that multiple self-reported MTBI was associated with poorer performance on measures of delayed memory and executive functioning. The implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. (JINS, 2010, 16, 262–267.)

(Received June 11 2009)

(Reviewed October 26 2009)

(Accepted October 26 2009)


c1 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Heather Belanger, James A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital, Mental Health & Behavioral Sciences – 116B, 13000 Bruce B. Downs Blvd., Tampa, FL 33612. E-mail: