Development and Psychopathology

Regular Articles

Parent–child attachment and internalizing symptoms in childhood and adolescence: A review of empirical findings and future directions

Laura E. Brumariua1 c1 and Kathryn A. Kernsa1

a1 Kent State University


The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the theory and evidence for the links of parent–child attachment with internalizing problems in childhood and adolescence. We address three key questions: (a) how consistent is the evidence that attachment security or insecurity is linked to internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression? (b) How consistent is the evidence that specific forms of insecurity are more strongly related to internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression than are other forms of insecurity? (c) Are associations with internalizing symptoms, anxiety, and depression consistent for mother–child and father–child attachment? The current findings are consistent with the hypothesis that insecure attachment is associated with the development of internalizing problems. The links between specific insecure attachment patterns and internalizing problems are difficult to evaluate. Father–child and mother–child attachments have a comparable impact, although there are relatively few studies of father–child attachment. No moderators consistently affect these relations. We also propose two models of how attachment insecurity may combine with other factors to lead to anxiety or depression.


c1 Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Laura E. Brumariu, Department of Psychology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242; E-mail: