In an epidemiological survey from South India, 936 serum samples were tested for IgG against recombinant baculovirus-expressed VP6 proteins from human group A and group C rotaviruses. The overall seroprevalence for group A was 100% and for group C was 25·32% (95% CI 22·64–28·21). The lowest seroprevalence for group C was in children aged <10 years (16·79%). An age-related rise in seroprevalence in group C, but not group A, suggests different patterns of exposure. Seroprevalence was similar in rural and urban subjects, unlike the higher prevalence in rural subjects in studies elsewhere.