Although jasmonates (JAs) are involved in germination and seedling development, the regulatory mechanism of JAs, and their relation with endogenous level modifications in these processes, is not well understood. We report here the detection of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), 11-hydroxyjasmonate (11-OH-JA), 12-hydroxyjasmonate (12-OH-JA) and methyljasmonate (JAME) in unimbibed seeds and seedlings of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Moneymaker (wild type) and tss1, tss2, tos1 mutants. The main compounds in wild-type and tss1, tss2, tos1 seeds were the hydroxylate-JAs; 12-OH-JA was the major component in dry seeds of the wild type and in tss2 and tos1. The amounts of these derivatives were higher in seeds than in seedlings. Changes in JAs during wild-type and tss1 imbibition were analysed in seeds and the imbibition water. In wild-type imbibed seeds, 11-OH-JA content was higher than in tss1. 12-OH-JA showed a different tendency with respect to 11-OH-JA, with high levels in the wild type at early imbibition. In tss1, levels of 12-OH-JA rose from 24 to 48 h of imbibition. At 72 h of imbibition, when radicles had emerged, the amounts of both hydroxylates in wild-type and tss1 seeds were minimal. An important release of the hydroxylate forms was observed in the imbibition water. 11-OH-JA decreased in the imbibition water of wild-type seeds at 48 h. On the contrary, a high and sustained liberation of this compound was observed in tss1 after 24 h. 12-OH-JA increased in wild-type as well in tss1 until 24 h. Thereafter, a substantial reduction in the content of this compound was registered. NaCl-treated wild-type seedlings increased their 12-OH-JA, but tss1 seedlings increased their JA in response to salt treatment. In tss2 seedlings, NaCl caused a slight decrease in 11-OH-JA and JAME, whereas tos1 seedlings showed a dramatic OPDA and 12-OH-JA decrease in response to salt treatment. Under salt stress the mutant seedlings showed different patterns of JAs according to their differential hypersensitivity to abiotic stress. The JA-hydroxylate forms found, and the differential accumulation of JAs during germination, imbibition and seedling development, as well as their response to NaCl stress, provide new evidence about the control of many developmental processes by JA.
(Received November 02 2004)
(Accepted August 02 2005)