British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Innovative Techniques

Correspondence of continuous interstitial glucose measurement against arterialised and capillary glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy volunteers

Louise Dyea1 c1, Michael Mansfielda2, Nicola Lasikiewicza1, Lena Mahawisha2, Rainer Schnella3, Duncan Talbota4, Hitesh Chauhana4, Fiona Crodena1 and Clare Lawtona1

a1 Human Appetite Research Unit, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

a2 The Diabetes Centre, St James's University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF, UK

a3 University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 65, D-47057 Duisburg, Germany

a4 Unilever R&D, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK


The aim of the present study was to validate the Glucoday® continuous interstitial ambulatory glucose-monitoring device (AGD) against plasma glucose measured from arterialised venous (AV) and glucose from capillary whole blood (finger prick, FP) in non-diabetic subjects in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. Fifteen healthy overweight men (age 30–49 years, BMI 26–31 kg/m2) participated. Glucose levels were measured before, during and after consumption of an oral 75 g glucose load using twelve FP samples and forty-four 1 ml AV blood samples during 180 min. Interstitial glucose was measured via the AGD. Three venous samples for fasting insulin were taken to estimate insulin resistance. Profiles of AGD, AV and FP glucose were generated for each participant. Glucose values for each minute of the measurement period were interpolated using a locally weighted scatterplot smoother. Data were compared using Bland–Altman plots that showed good correspondence between all pairs of measurements. Concordance between the three methods was 0·8771 (Kendall's W, n 15, P < 0·001). Concordance was greater between AV and FP (W = 0·9696) than AGD and AV (W = 0·8770) or AGD and FP (W = 0·8764). Analysis of time to peak glucose indicated that AGD measures lagged approximately 15 min behind FP and AV measures. Percent body fat was significantly correlated with time to peak glucose levels for each measure, while BMI and estimated insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment, HOMA) were not. In conclusion, AGD shows good correspondence with FP and AV glucose measures in response to a glucose load with a 15 min time lag. Taking this into account, AGD has potential application in nutrition and behaviour studies.

(Received November 04 2008)

(Revised June 08 2009)

(Accepted June 08 2009)

(Online publication August 13 2009)


c1 Corresponding author: Louise Dye, fax +44 113 3435749, email


Abbreviations: AGD, ambulatory glucose-monitoring device; AV, arterialised venous; FP, finger prick; HOMA, homeostatic model assessment; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test