World's Poultry Science Journal

Review Article

Livelihoods and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Cambodia


a1 Department of National Security Affairs, United States Naval Postgraduate School, Code NS, Glasgow 364, 1411 Cunningham Road, Monterey, California 93943, USA

a2 Animal Production and Health Division; Livestock Information, Sector Analysis and Policy Branch (AGAL); Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative (PPLPI); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy


Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Type A subtype H5N1 is a viral zoonotic disease that has infected and killed birds and humans since late 2003. Cambodia's experience with HPAI since the disease was discovered on a farm outside Phnom Penh in January 2004 reveals important aspects of how a developing country, with limited resources and capabilities, has responded to a crisis that has global public health implications and, vice-versa, how this global response in turn affected Cambodia. Qualitative research methodologies consisting of mostly one-on-one semi-structured interviews by Sophal Ear across various government offices, the private sector and the non-governmental sectors, and online surveys sent to individuals deeply involved in HPAI work in Cambodia can render interesting insights related to livelihood issues. Results from these methodologies suggest there is a non-alignment of interests among the government, donors, implementing agencies and rural smallholder farmers that have important implications for effectiveness of disease mitigation measures and livelihood impacts.

(Received May 27 2009)

(Accepted August 30 2009)


c1 Corresponding author:


The views expressed are those of the authors and do not reflect the views of the United States Government nor the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.