Nutrition Research Reviews

Review Article

Functional foods for dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular risk prevention

Cesare R. Sirtoria1 c1, Claudio Gallia1, James W. Andersona2, Elena Sirtoria3 and Anna Arnoldia3

a1 Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milano, Italy

a2 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

a3 Department of Endocrinology, Pathophysiology and Applied Biology, University of Milano, Italy

Abstract

A food can be regarded as ‘functional’ if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functional foods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with ‘protective’ ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial.

Correspondence:

c1 Corresponding author: Dr Cesare R. Sirtori, fax +39 2 5021 8284, email cesare.sirtori@unimi.it

Footnotes

Abbreviations: ALA, α-linolenic acid; HDL-C, HDL-cholesterol; LDL-C, LDL-cholesterol; LDL-R, LDL receptor; SREBP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein