Vaccines against the zoonotic trematodes Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica
Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are digenetic trematodes and, therefore, possess similar life cycles. While schistosomiasis japonica has for a long time been recognised as a major disease of both humans and animals, infection with fasciolids has only been considered of relevance to animals. However, a number of recent reports indicate that fasciolosis is becoming a serious public health problem, especially in South America, Egypt and Iran (sporadic cases are also on the increase throughout Europe). Vaccines targeted at animals could play an important role in controlling these three diseases in animals and, by blocking transmission of infection, have a concurrent beneficial effect on disease in humans. Approaches towards identifying and producing vaccines against these parasites are similar and are discussed in this reveiw.
Key Words: Schistosoma japonicum; schistosomiasis japonica; Fasciola hepatica; Fasciola gigantica; fasciolosis; transmission blocking veterinary vaccine; antigen discovery; recombinant proteins; immune responses.
c1 Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, 300 Herston Road, Brisbane, Q 4006, Australia. Ph: +61-7-3362 0401. Fax: +61-7-3362 0104. E-mail: donM@qimr.edu.au