a1 Neuropsychiatry Branch
a2 Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, National Institute of Mental Health Neuroscience Center at St. Elizabeths, Washington, DC 20032. email@example.com
It is often presumed that effects of neural tissue transplants are due to release of neurotransmitter. In many cases, however, effects attributed to transplants may be related to phenomena such as trophic effects mediated by glial cells or even tissue reactions to injury. Any conclusion regarding causation of graft effects must be based on the control groups or other comparisons used. In human clinical studies, for example, comparing the same subject before and after transplantation allows for many interpretations of the causes of clinical changes.