a1 Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates Avenue, Houston, TX 77030-2600, USA
a2 Louisiana State University AgCenter, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
a3 Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA
Objective To examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors.
Design Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyle information (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated, using a cross-sectional design. Statistical methods included principal component factor analysis, analysis of covariance and linear regression. All analyses were covariate-adjusted.
Setting The Bogalusa Heart Study (1995–1996), USA.
Subjects Young adults (19–39 years; n 995; 61 % females/39 % males; 80 % whites/20 % blacks) from a semi-rural southern US community were examined.
Results The ‘Western Dietary Pattern’ (WDP) consisted of refined grains, French fries, high-fat dairy foods, cheese dishes, red meats, processed meats, eggs, snacks, sweets/desserts, sweetened beverages and condiments. The ‘Prudent Dietary Pattern’ (PDP) consisted of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, 100 % fruit juices, low-fat dairy products, poultry, clear soups and low-fat salad dressings. The DP explained 31 % of the dietary intake variance. Waist circumference (P = 0·02), triceps skinfold (P = 0·01), plasma insulin (P = 0·03), serum TAG (P = 0·05), and the occurrence of MetS (P = 0·03) were all inversely associated with PDP. Insulin sensitivity (P < 0·0005) was positively associated with PDP. Serum HDL cholesterol (P = 0·05) was inversely associated with WDP. Blacks consumed more servings from WDP than whites (P = 0·02). Females consumed more servings from PDP than males (P = 0·002). Those with >12 years of education consumed more servings from PDP than their counterparts (P < 0·0001). Current smokers consumed more servings from WDP than current non-smokers (P < 0·0001). Physically very active young adults consumed fewer servings from WDP than their sedentary counterparts (P = 0·02).
Conclusions More studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other populations.
(Received October 07 2008)
(Accepted July 20 2009)
(Online publication September 11 2009)