a1 Lehigh University
Anthony Patrick O’brien is Professor of Economics at Lehigh University. His research has dealt with such issues as the evolution of the U.S. automobile industry, the causes of the Great Depression, and the causes of black–white income differences. His research has been published in the American Economic Review, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, the Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, Industrial Relations, the Journal of Economic History, and Explorations in Economic History.
Judith A. McDonald is Professor of Economics at Lehigh University. Her most recent work has been on pay equity in Canada and gender differences in starting salaries. Her previous research has examined U.S.-Canada trade relations, economic causes of tropical deforestation, and exchange-rate and capital-flow issues related to the Asian currency crisis of the late 1990s. Her research has been published in Canadian Public Policy, Ecological Economics, the Journal of Economic History, and the Journal of Human Resources.
We would like to thank the Government of Canada for financial assistance and the staff of the National Archives of Canada for their help. We also benefited from the comments of Bill Hutchinson, Peter Waite, and several anonymous referees on earlier drafts.