British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Behaviour, Appetite and Obesity

Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation

Pascalle L. G. Weijzena1a2 c1, Paul A. M. Smeetsa1a3 and Cees de Graafa1

a1 Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, PO Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands

a2 FrieslandCampina Corporate Research, PO Box 87, 7400 AB Deventer, The Netherlands

a3 Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands


Sensory-specific satiation (SSS) drives food selection and contributes to meal termination. We hypothesised that smaller sips would increase SSS due to increased oro-sensory exposure, irrespective of energy content. The objective was to determine the effects of sip size and energy content on ad libitum intake of orangeade and subjective SSS for orangeade. Orangeade intake and ratings of wanting and liking were measured before and after ad libitum orangeade consumption in a 2 × 2 cross-over design (n 53). Conditions differed in energy content (no-energy v. regular-energy orangeade) and in sip size (large, 20 g/sip v. small, 5 g/sip). The mean intake of both orangeades was lower when consumed with small sips than when consumed with large sips (regular-energy, 352 v. 493 g; no-energy, 338 v. 405 g; both P < 0·001). When consumed with large sips, the mean intake of no-energy orangeade was lower than that of regular-energy orangeade (P = 0·02). When consumed with small sips, subjective SSS (based on the desire to drink) was higher for no-energy orangeade than for regular-energy orangeade (P = 0·01), while mean intake was comparable. We concluded that smaller sip size, i.e. increased oro-sensory exposure per unit of consumption, can lower intake of sweet drinks. Only with low oro-sensory exposure (large sip size) was intake higher for an energy-containing sweet drink than for a no-energy sweet drink. This suggests that intake of sweet drinks is stimulated by (metabolic) reward value and inhibited by sensory satiation. This underpins the importance of SSS for meal termination.

(Received December 01 2008)

(Revised February 11 2009)

(Accepted March 10 2009)

(Online publication April 15 2009)


c1 Corresponding author: Dr Pascalle Weijzen, fax +31 570 695 918, email


Abbreviations: GLM, general linear model; LSD, least significant difference; SSS, sensory-specific satiation