a1 (University of Nottingham)
Significant developments have taken place in navigation and positioning techniques at sea. These include radio, acoustic and inertial methods, and satellite based techniques. The latter consist of the Transit Doppler system, which has now been in operation for over 20 years, and the Global Positioning System which is due to be inaugurated in the early 1990s. These various systems are described in the paper, and their marine engineering, geodetic and geophysical applications discussed. The paper is based on a lecture presented at the Oceanology International Conference held at Brighton in March 1986.