The Journal of Politics

Research Notes

Female Promotions in Male-Dominant Organizations: The Case of the United States Military

J. Norman Baldwina1

a1 University of Alabama


This article reports the outcome of more than 350,000 promotion decisions affecting middle-grade military officers. Data indicate males have higher promotion rates than females in the Army and Navy, while females have higher promotion rates than males in the Air Force. However, male and female promotion rates are similar in the combined services, and male promotion-rate advantages generally have diminished or disappeared in recent years. Data further indicate women leave the officer corps at high rates and are still grossly underrepresented among those promoted to middle-grade officer ranks.

(Accepted April 04 1995)

(Received February 12 1996)

J. Norman Baldwin is associate professor of political science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487–0213.