Environmental Conservation



Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas


F. BADALAMENTI a1c1, A.A. RAMOS a2, E. VOULTSIADOU a3, J.L. SÁNCHEZ LIZASO a2, G. D'ANNA a1, C. PIPITONE a1, J. MAS a4, J.A. RUIZ FERNANDEZ a4, D. WHITMARSH a5 and S. RIGGIO a6
a1 Laboratory of Marine Biology IRMA – CNR, Via G. Da Verrazzano, 17-91014 Castellammare del Golfo (TP), Italy
a2 Department of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resources, University of Alicante, Spain
a3 Department of Zoology, University of Thessaloniki, Greece
a4 IEO, Centro Oceanográfico, Murcia, Spain
a5 CEMARE, University of Portsmouth, UK
a6 Department of Animal Biology, University of Palermo, Italy

Abstract

Marine protected areas (MPAs) may be important for protecting the marine environment, but they may also have substantial socio-cultural impacts about which very little is currently known, or acknowledged. In the Mediterranean, few data are available on the socio-economic consequences of MPAs. The present study reviews the existing data on MPAs in Spain, France, Italy and Greece. A general increase in tourist activities in Mediterranean MPAs is evident, as are increases in the abundances of larger fish species, although there are no data indicating yields for fisheries increase adjacent to MPAs. A large increase in the number of divers and vessels using MPAs has already had impacts on natural benthic communities as a result of diver damage, mooring and the feeding of large fish by divers. Emphasis has been given in only a few MPAs to promoting public awareness of these impacts. Although the conservation of nature should be considered the fundamental objective of MPAs, neglecting their social, cultural and economic impacts has at times led to poor local consensus, if not hostility. We believe that planning and managing MPAs should be conducted on a multidisciplinary basis. Nonetheless, no single model can be considered valid for the whole Mediterranean. The very variable characteristics of coastal areas, from those of small uninhabited islands to those of cities, require different weightings to be assigned for each factor in order to achieve a durable equilibrium and realize the original objectives of each MPA. Only with such flexibility of management will it be possible to reach a greater understanding of the MPA system and create a lasting consensus in favour of conservation, a consensus which would mean an overwhelming majority of people actively avoiding damaging nature and preventing others from doing so.

(Received July 2 1999)
(Accepted February 23 2000)


Key Words: marine protected areas; marine reserves; socio-economic aspects; tourism; diving; fisheries; Mediterranean sea.

Correspondence:
c1 Correspondence: Dr Fabio Badalamenti Tel: +39 0924 35013 Fax: +39 0924 35084 e-mail fbadala@tin.it