a1 University of Maryland
a2 University of Maryland
a3 University of Maryland
The obvious explanation for the unpopularity of Muslims in contemporary American society centers on the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. However, we contend that feelings about Muslims are shaped primarily by a general sense of affect for groups that fall outside of the cultural mainstream and the personality and value orientations typically associated with such affect. Thus, the current structure of Muslim evaluations should not differ much from that before the 9/11 attacks. Moreover, Muslims may be distinctive in that, unlike most minority groups, they are associated with both positively viewed racial and religious minority groups and with negatively viewed cultural minority groups. Analyses of data from the 2004 American National Election Study and other surveys conducted between 2000 and 2007 strongly support our argument.
(Received May 21 2007)
(Accepted December 28 2008)
Kerem Ozan Kalkan is Ph.D. candidate in government and politics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.
Geoffrey C. Layman is associate professor of government and politics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.
Eric M. Uslaner is professor of government and politics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.