The Lichenologist

Research Article

A world-wide key to the genus Graphis (Ostropales: Graphidaceae)

Robert LÜCKINGa1, Alan W. ARCHERa2 and André APTROOTa3

a1 Botany Department, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496, USA. Email:

a2 National Herbarium of New South Wales, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.

a3 ABL Herbarium, G. v.d. Veenstraat 107, NL-3762 XK Soest, The Netherlands.


A world-wide key to the genus Graphis is presented, based on extensive type studies and revision of several thousand historical and recent collections. A total of 330 species are accepted and included in the key, and a further 205 epithets are listed as synonyms. The structured key includes taxonomic information on type specimens of epithets considered to be synonyms of the accepted species. In addition, 28 species of other genera (Carbacanthographis, Diorygma, Dyplolabia, Glyphis) with carbonized excipulum and hyaline ascospores likely to be confused with Graphis are mentioned under the corresponding key couplets. Although the key is preliminary and some taxonomic and nomenclatural problems remain unresolved at this time, it should allow reliable identification of most specimens especially from tropical regions. The following 14 species are described as new: Graphis brahmanensis Aptroot sp. nov., G. cupei Vain. ex Lücking sp. nov., G. funilina Aptroot sp. nov., G. inspersolongula Aptroot sp. nov., G. leucaenae Aptroot sp. nov., G. lourdesina Aptroot sp. nov., G. myolensis Aptroot sp. nov., G. nadurina Aptroot sp. nov., G. norstictica Archer & Lücking sp. nov., G. sarawakensis Hale ex Lücking sp. nov., G. slendrae Hale ex Lücking sp. nov., G. subintermedians Hale ex Lücking sp. nov., G. subserpens Staiger sp. nov., and G. syzygii Aptroot sp. nov. In addition, 22 new combinations are proposed: Carbacanthographis cleitops (Fée) Lücking comb. nov., C. coccospora (Aptroot) Aptroot & Lücking comb. nov., C. induta (Müll. Arg.) Lücking comb. nov., C. triphoroides (M. Wirth & Hale) Lücking comb. nov., Graphis apoda (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. cremicolor (H. Magn.) Lücking & Archer comb. nov., G. enteroleuca (Ach.) Lücking comb. nov., G. evirescens (Redinger) Lücking comb. nov., G. galactoderma (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov., G. ingarum (Vain.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. isidiata (Hale) Lücking comb. nov., G. japonica (Müll. Arg.) A. W. Archer & Lücking comb. nov., G. kousyuensis (Horik. & M. Nakan.) Lücking comb. nov., G. negrosina (Vain.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. oxyspora (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov., G. plumbea (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov., G. riopiedrensis (Fink) Lücking comb. nov., G. semirigida (Müll. Arg.) Lücking comb. nov., G. subradiata (Nyl.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., G. subtecta (Nyl.) Lücking comb. et stat. nov., and G. sulphurella (Zahlbr.) Lücking comb. nov. Replacement names are established for six taxa: Graphis jeanmuelleri Lücking nom. nov. [≡ Graphina elegantula Müll. Arg., non Graphis elegantula Zahlbr.], Graphis neoelongata Lücking nom. nov. [≡ G. elongata Vain., non G. elongata Zenker], Graphis novopalmicola A. W. Archer & Lücking nom. nov. [≡ Graphina palmicola Müll. Arg., non Graphis palmicola Makhija & Adaw.], Graphis paralleloides Cáceres & Lücking nom. nov. [≡ G. rimulosa var. parallela Müll. Arg., non G. parallela Müll. Arg.], Graphis subalbostriata Lücking nom. nov. [≡ G. angustata var. albostriata Vain., non G. albostriata Vain.], and Graphis subvernicosa Lücking nom. nov. [≡ Opegrapha vernicosa Fée, non G. vernicosa Nyl.]. Three new synonyms are established for Glyphis substriatula (Nyl.) Staiger: Graphina sulcatula Müll. Arg., G. sulcatula var. conglomerata Müll. Arg., and G. bakeri Zahlbr.

(Accepted April 03 2009)