British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Human and Clinical Nutrition

Impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on academic aptitude test achievement at the end of high school in a multicausal approach

Daniza M. Ivanovica1a2a3 c1, María del Pilar N. Rodrígueza1, Hernán T. Péreza1, Jorge A. Alveara1, Atilio F. Almagiàa4, Triana D. Toroa4, María Soledad C. Urrutiaa5, Arturo L. Cruza2a3 and Rodolfo M. Ivanovica1

a1 Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

a2 School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, California, USA

a3 Adventist University of Chile, Chillán, Chile

a4 Catholic University of Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile

a5 PAHO/WHO, Washington, DC, USA


Like in many other countries, few investigations have been carried out in Chile to measure the long-term effects of nutritional status at an early age on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The objectives of the present study were to describe the impact of nutritional, intellectual, family, educational and socio-economic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that may affect achievement on the academic aptitude test (AAT) taken in 1998 at the end of high school, and to quantify the impact of these independent variables on the AAT. The present study comprises two cross-sectional stages: in 1987, a representative sample of 813 elementary school first-grader Chilean children from the Metropolitan Region was randomly chosen; in 1998, 12 years later, 632 school-age children were located and only 351 of them graduated from high school and, from these, 260 students took the AAT. In 1987 nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric parameters, intellectual ability by the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, scholastic achievement through Spanish language and mathematics tests, and socio-economic status using Graffar's modified scale; family variables were also recorded. Maternal schooling, scholastic achievement, intellectual ability and head circumference-for-age z-score (anthropometric indicator of both nutritional background and brain development) all in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for AAT variance in 1998 (r2 0·402). These results provide a foundation to identify the risk factors at an early age that affect AAT scores and should be useful to improve nutritional and educational policies.

(Received March 28 2008)

(Revised October 03 2008)

(Accepted October 13 2008)

(Online publication January 13 2009)


c1 Professor Daniza M. Ivanovic, fax +56 2 2214030, email;


Abbreviations: AAT, academic aptitude test; HC, head circumference; IA, intellectual ability; IQ, intelligence quotient; Z-H, height-for-age z-score; LA, Spanish language test; MA, mathematics test; p, percentile; Q, quartile; SA, scholastic achievement; SES, socio-economic stratum; Z-HC, head-circumference-for-age z-score; Z-W, weight-for-age z-score; Z-W/H, weight-for-height z-score