a1 Nagasaki University
Kumiko Koyama is an Associate Professor of Economics at Nagasaki University and conducts research on U.S. and U.S.-Japan trade policy history.
I have benefited much from comments and advice by Miles W. Fletcher of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and appreciate helpful comments of three anonymous reviewers and the editor. I would also like to thank Eiich Akimoto and Yoshikatsu Hayashi. Financial support for the research in the United States came from Nagasaki University.