Psychological Medicine

Original Articles

Is adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder a valid diagnosis in the presence of high IQ?

K. M. Antshela1, S. V. Faraonea1 c1, K. Maglionea1, A. Doylea2, R. Frieda2, L. Seidmana2 and J. Biedermana2

a1 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA

a2 Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Abstract

Background Because the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in higher education settings is rapidly becoming a contentious issue, particularly among patients with high IQs, we sought to assess the validity of diagnosing ADHD in high-IQ adults and to further characterize the clinical features associated with their ADHD.

Method We operationalized high IQ as having a full-scale IQ120. We identified 53 adults with a high IQ who did not have ADHD and 64 adults with a high IQ who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Groups did not differ on IQ, socio-economic status or gender.

Results High-IQ adults with ADHD reported a lower quality of life, had poorer familial and occupational functioning, and had more functional impairments, including more speeding tickets, accidents and arrests. Major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder diagnoses were higher in high-IQ adults with ADHD. All other psychiatric co-morbidities, including antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse, did not differ between the two high-IQ groups. ADHD was more prevalent in first-degree relatives of adults with ADHD relative to controls.

Conclusions Our data suggest that adults with ADHD and a high IQ display patterns of functional impairments, familiality and psychiatric co-morbidities that parallel those found in the average-IQ adult ADHD population.

(Received August 06 2008)

(Revised October 27 2008)

(Accepted November 09 2008)

(Online publication December 24 2008)

Correspondence

c1 Address for correspondence: S. V. Faraone, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA. (Email: FaraoneS@upstate.edu)

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