Public Health Nutrition

Research Article

Development and validation of instruments measuring body image and body weight dissatisfaction in South African mothers and their daughters

Zandile Mcizaa1a2, Julia H Goedeckea1, Nelia P Steyna3, Karen Charltona3, Thandi Puoanea4, Shelly Meltzera1, Naomi S Levitta1 and Estelle V Lamberta1 c1

a1 UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, PO Box 115, Newlands, 7725, South Africa

a2 Nutrition and Dietetics Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa

a3 MRC Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle Unit, Tygerberg, South Africa

a4 School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa


Objective We sought to validate questionnaires concerning body image perception, body size dissatisfaction and weight-related beliefs in multi-ethnic South African mothers and their daughters.

Settings and subjects: Girls attending primary school (ages 9–12 years, n = 333) and their mothers (n = 204) were interviewed regarding their demographics and body image. Weight, height and skinfold thicknesses were measured. Body image questions and body mass index (BMI) were compared with silhouettes adapted from the Pathways Study for girls and Stunkard's body image figures for mothers. A Feel–Ideal Difference (FID) index score was created by subtracting the score of the silhouette selected by the participants as ‘Ideal’ from the one selected as most closely representing their current appearance or ‘Feel’. We hypothesised that a higher FID index score would be associated with greater body size dissatisfaction.

Results BMI percentiles in girls (r = 0.46, P < 0.05) and BMI in mothers (r = 0.68, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the selected silhouettes based on size. Participants who reported feelings of being ‘fat’ and those who perceived that their family and friends were more dissatisfied with their body size had significantly higher FID index scores. Scores were lower in black than white girls (all P < 0.05). No differences were found in FID index scores between ethnic groups of mothers. Internal reliability of the ‘thin’ and ‘fat’ belief constructs for girls was demonstrated by standardised Cronbach's α values ≥0.7.

Conclusion Silhouettes, FID index, ‘fat’ and ‘thin’ belief constructs (in girls) are age-appropriate, culturally sensitive and can be used in further intervention studies to understand body image.

(Received May 15 2005)

(Accepted June 20 2005)


c1 *Corresponding author: Email