Public Health Nutrition

Research Article

Food consumption patterns in an adult urban population in Beirut, Lebanon

Lara Nasreddinea1a2, Nahla Hwallaa3 c1, Abla Sibaia4, Mouïn Hamzéa1 and Dominique Parent-Massina2

a1 Lebanese Council for Scientific Research, BP 11-8281, Beirut, Lebanon

a2 Laboratoire de Toxicologie Alimentaire, ESMISAB/UBO, Technopole Brest-Iroise, F-29280, Plouzane, France

a3 Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut, 1107-2020, Lebanon

a4 Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Lebanon


Objectives To investigate, measure and assess the food consumption pattern of the adult population living in Beirut, Lebanon, and to identify inadequate or excessive intake of food groups particularly linked to non-communicable diseases.

Design A cross-sectional food consumption survey was conducted in 2001. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire.

Setting Dietary survey of the urban population (Beirut).

Subjects Random sample of 444 adult subjects (aged 25–54 years) in Beirut.

Results The mean consumption of food by the study population was estimated to be 3030 g day−1, providing an energy intake of 2523.57 kcal day−1. Fat contributed 38.9% to the average daily energy intake, protein 13.4% and carbohydrates 47.2%. Mean consumption of fruits and vegetables was approximately 367 g day−1 and 45.3% of subjects consumed less than the recommended 400 g daily. Cereals contributed 324.5 g day−1, providing 35.0% of daily energy intake, with bread being the most highly consumed (146.2 g day−1) in this food group. The mean intake of meat and poultry products was 91.7 g day−1 and provided 8.8% of daily energy intake, with consumption of butchery products especially beef being the highest (47.6 g day−1) followed by poultry (36.1 g day−1). A low consumption of fish was noted (19.7 g day−1), with 73.6% of subjects consuming less than the recommended 2 servings of fish per week. Dairy products contributed 243.1 g day−1 or 10.9% of daily energy intake, and milk was the least consumed dairy product (56.8% of consumers). The intake of added fats and oils, excluding those in cooked recipes, was 20.4 g day−1; olive oil was not used in cooking but was added solely at the table and its mean intake was 5 g day−1. The consumption of butter was low (0.86 g day−1) and vegetable oil was the type of fat mostly used in cooking. The average intake of alcoholic beverages was low (33.6 g day−1), accounting for 0.7% of total energy intake. Women had significantly higher intakes of milk, dairy products, vegetables and coffee than men (P < 0.05). The percentage of women who reported the use of low-fat items was significantly higher than that of men. Younger people (25–34 years) ate significantly more meat, sugar, alcoholic beverages and soft drinks, and consumed significantly less cooked vegetables and legumes, than older ones (P < 0.05).

Conclusions The rather high contribution of fat to daily energy intake, the low intake of fish and the relatively high percentage of people consuming less than the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables observed in this study suggest that the adult Lebanese population is at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and other non-communicable diseases, which provides the basis for recommending increased intakes of fish, particularly fatty fish, and fruits and vegetables.

(Received July 20 2004)

(Accepted January 18 2005)


c1 *Corresponding author: Email