British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Dietary Surveys and Nutritional Epidemiology

A Japanese diet and 19-year mortality: National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-Communicable Diseases and its Trends in the Aged, 1980

Yasuyuki Nakamuraa1a2 c1, Hirotsugu Ueshimaa2, Tomonori Okamuraa2, Takashi Kadowakia2, Takehito Hayakawaa3, Yoshikuni Kitaa2, Robert D. Abbotta2a4, Akira Okayamaa5 and for National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-Communicable Diseases and its Trends in the Aged, 1980 Research Group

a1 Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Kyoto Women's University, 35 Imakumano Kitahiyoshi-cho, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 605-8501, Japan

a2 Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu City, Shiga, Japan

a3 Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan

a4 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA

a5 Department of Preventive Cardiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita City, Japan

Abstract

Few studies have examined the association between Japanese diet and mortality outcomes. We analysed the relationship between a healthy Japanese diet and all-cause and cause-specific mortality using the database from the National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-Communicable Diseases and its Trends in the Aged, 1980. At baseline in 1980, data were collected on study participants aged ≧30 years from randomly selected areas in Japan. We defined a measure of a healthy reduced-salt Japanese diet based on seven components from FFQ. The total score ranged from 0 to 7, with 0 being least healthy and 7 being most healthy. Participants were divided into approximate tertiles of dietary scores (0–2, 3 and 4–7 scores). After excluding participants with co-morbidities, we followed 9086 participants (44 % men) for 19 years. There were 1823 all-cause and 654 cardiovascular deaths during the follow-up. With the dietary score group 0–2 serving as a reference, the Cox multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for groups with scores 3 and 4–7 were 0·92 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·04) and 0·78 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·88) for all-cause mortality (trend P < 0·0001), and 0·91 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·10) and 0·80 (95 % CI 0·66, 0·97) for cardiovascular mortality (trend P = 0·022). Adherence to a healthy reduced-salt Japanese diet was associated with an approximate 20 % lower rate of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

(Received April 04 2008)

(Revised September 22 2008)

(Accepted September 24 2008)

(Online publication November 20 2008)

Correspondence:

c1 Corresponding author: Yasuyuki Nakamura, fax +81 75 531 2162, email nakamury@kyoto-wu.ac.jp

Footnotes

Abbreviations: BP, blood pressure

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