a1 Department of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
a2 Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle, Australia
a3 Department of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
a4 Department of Ophthalmology (Centre for Vision Research), University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
a5 Westmead Millennium Institute, Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales 2145, Australia
Objective: To compare methods used to assess the validity of nutrient intake data obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using folate and vitamin B12 as nutrient examples.
Design: Cross-sectional sample from a population cohort.
Setting: Two postcode areas west of Sydney, Australia.
Subjects: In total, 2895 people aged 49 years and older provided dietary data using a semi-quantitative FFQ (79% of 3654 subjects examined). The validity of the FFQ was assessed against three 4-day weighed food records (WFRs) completed by 78 people (mean age 70 years).
Results: Folate and vitamin B12 validity data were assessed using different methods. The Spearman ranked correlations (energy-adjusted) were 0.66 for folate and 0.38 for vitamin B12. Using the Bland–Altman method, following loge transformation, no linear trend existed between the differences and means for folate and vitamin B12. Large differences existed between the FFQ and WFR in individual cases, particularly for vitamin B12. Finally, data were divided into quintile categories for the test and reference method: 79% classified folate within one quintile, 65% classified vitamin B12 within one quintile; there was no gross misclassification for folate and only 3% misclassification for vitamin B12.
Conclusions: Different methods of analysis provided different information about the validity of the FFQ. Correlation coefficients should not be used alone to assess the validity of nutrient data, but should be used in conjunction with Bland–Altman analyses. Depending on the use of the data, additional assessment of classification categories is recommended. This worked example demonstrates that absolute intakes of folate and vitamin B12 should be used with caution.
(Received October 20 2003)
(Accepted January 19 2004)