Psychological Medicine



Original Article

Risk of postpartum depression in relation to dietary fish and fat intake in Japan: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study


YOSHIHIRO MIYAKE a1c1, SATOSHI SASAKI a2, TETSUJI YOKOYAMA a3, KEIKO TANAKA a1, YUKIHIRO OHYA a4, WAKABA FUKUSHIMA a5, KYOKO SAITO a3a6, SATOKO OHFUJI a5, CHIKAKO KIYOHARA a7, YOSHIO HIROTA a5 and the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study Group 1
a1 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
a2 Nutritional Epidemiology Programme, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan
a3 Department of Technology Assessment and Biostatistics, National Institute of Public Health, Wako, Japan
a4 Division of Allergy, Department of Medical Specialties, National Centre for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan
a5 Department of Public Health, Osaka City University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
a6 Centre for Collaboration and Partnership, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan
a7 Department of Preventive Medicine, Division of Social Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Article author query
miyake y   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
sasaki s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
yokoyama t   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
tanaka k   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ohya y   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
fukushima w   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
saito k   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ohfuji s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
kiyohara c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hirota y   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 

Abstract

Background. An ecological analysis found that the docosahexaenoic acid content in mother's milk and seafood intake were inversely correlated with postpartum depression. This prospective study investigated the relationship of consumption of selected high-fat foods and specific types of fatty acids with the risk of postpartum depression.

Method. The subjects were 865 Japanese women. Dietary data were obtained from a self-administered diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used for the evaluation of postpartum depression. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, parity, cigarette smoking, family structure, family income, education, changes in diet in the previous month, season when data at baseline were collected, body mass index, time of delivery before the second survey, medical problems in pregnancy, baby's sex and baby's birthweight.

Results. The percentage of women with high depression scores was 14·0%. No evident dose–response associations were observed between intake of fish, meat, eggs, dairy products, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of postpartum depression. However, there was an inverted J-shaped relationship between intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid and the risk of postpartum depression.

Conclusions. This study failed to substantiate a clear inverse relationship between fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and postpartum depression. Further investigations are needed to determine whether fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption is preventive against postpartum depression.

(Published Online August 29 2006)


Correspondence:
c1 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan. (Email: miyake-y@fukuoka-u.ac.jp)


Footnotes

1 The other members of the Study Group are listed in the Appendix.



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