Development and Psychopathology


Reflecting on the Past and Planning for the Future of Developmental Psychopathology

Developing mechanisms of self-regulation


MICHAEL I. POSNER a1c1 and MARY K. ROTHBART a2c1
a1 Weill Medical College of Cornell University
a2 University of Oregon

Abstract

Child development involves both reactive and self-regulatory mechanisms that children develop in conjunction with social norms. A half-century of research has uncovered aspects of the physical basis of attentional networks that produce regulation, and has given us some knowledge of how the social environment may alter them. In this paper, we discuss six forms of developmental plasticity related to aspects of attention. We then focus on effortful or executive aspects of attention, reviewing research on temperamental individual differences and important pathways to normal and pathological development. Pathologies of development may arise when regulatory and reactive systems fail to reach the balance that allows for both self-expression and socially acceptable behavior. It remains a challenge for our society during the next millennium to obtain the information necessary to design systems that allow a successful balance to be realized by the largest possible number of children.


Correspondence:
c1 Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Prof. M. K. Rothbart, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403; maryroth@oregon.uoregon.edu or M. I. Posner, Sackler Institute, 1300 York Ave., New York, NY 10021; mip2003@med.cornell.edu.