Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: lessons from human genetic studies
Adiponectin, a protein exclusively secreted by adipose tissue but present at low levels in obesity, is now widely recognised as a key determinant of insulin sensitivity and of protection against obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. In this review we explain how genetic findings have contributed to a better understanding of the physiological role of adiponectin in humans. The adiponectin-encoding gene, ADIPOQ (ACDC), is very polymorphic: many frequent exonic synonymous, intronic and promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified, as well as a few rare exonic amino acid substitutions. Several of these variations additively contribute to the modulation of adiponectin level and function, and associate with insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes and vascular complications of obesity.
c1 Corresponding author: Philippe Froguel, Genomic Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN, UK. Tel: +44 (0)208 383 3989; Fax: +44 (0)208 383 3989; E-mail: email@example.com