a1 Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China
a2 Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Taiwan, Republic of China
a3 Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, No. 123 Sinde Road, Beigang Township, Yunlin County, 65152 Taiwan, Republic of China
a4 Department of Family Medicine, China Medical University Beigang Hospital, Taiwan, Republic of China
Background Betel-nut use is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. However, the association between betel-nut chewing and risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the association between betel-nut chewing and CKD in men.
Methods We retrospectively reviewed health-check records of 3264 men in a hospital-based cross-sectional screening programme from 2003 to 2006. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min/1·73 m2 calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Risk factors for CKD including diabetes, hypertension, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption and age were also considered.
Results A total of 677 (20·7 %) men were found to have CKD and 427 (13·1 %) participants reported a history of betel-nut use. The prevalence (24·8 %) of CKD in betel-nut users was significantly higher than that (11·3 %) of participants without betel-nut use (P = 0·026). In multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia, betel-nut use was independently associated with CKD (P < 0·001). The adjusted odds ratio for betel-nut use was 2·572 (95 % CI 1·917, 3·451).
Conclusions Betel-nut use is associated with CKD in men. The association between betel-nut use and CKD is independent of age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.
(Received April 03 2007)
(Accepted May 19 2008)