a1 Alberta Institute for Human Nutrition, 4-10 Agriculture Forestry Center, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E3
a2 Division of Urology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2P5
Integrins are transmembrane proteins that facilitate the interaction of cells with the extracellular environment. They have also been implicated in cancer progression. The effects of nutrients thought to be involved in the prevention of prostate cancer on integrin expression have not been determined. Prostate cancer cell lines representing a range of malignancy from normal (RWPE-1) to highly invasive phenotypes (22Rv1 < LNCaP < PC-3) were cultured with or without lycopene (10 nm), vitamin E (5 μm) or fish oil (100 μm) for 48 h. Growth and integrin (α2β1, αvβ3 and αvβ5) expression were assessed using Trypan Blue exclusion and monoclonal antibodies combined with flow cytometry. Vitamin E enhanced (P < 0·001) whereas fish oil reduced the growth of all the cell lines tested (P < 0·001). Lycopene had no effect on growth. All the malignant cell lines exhibited lower expression of α2β1 with the addition of lycopene to culture media. Supplemental fish oil reduced α2β1 in most invasive cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3). Each nutrient at physiological levels reduced integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 in most invasive cell lines (PC-3). The results suggest that integrins may represent an additional target of bioactive nutrients and that the effects of nutrients may be dependent on the type of cell line used.
(Received December 03 2007)
(Revised July 23 2008)
(Accepted July 24 2008)
(Online publication August 21 2008)
Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum; HS, human serum