The Journal of Ecclesiastical History

Crypto-Protestants and Pseudo-Catholics in the Nineteenth-Century Hispanic Caribbean



This essay, which stems from a broader project on religion in the nineteenth-century Hispanic Caribbean, seeks to recreate the experiences of the thousands of Protestants who struggled tenaciously to retain or hide their faith in colonial Cuba and Puerto Rico before the declaration of religious tolerance in 1869 and before the establishment of the region's first Protestant churches, the Anglican congregation of Ponce, organised in 1869, the Episcopal mission of Havana, started in 1871, and the Anglican congregation of Vieques, an island located eight miles off the coast of Puerto Rico, founded in 1880.


1 The author wishes to acknowledge the generous support received through a fellowship of the Pew Evangelical Scholars Program and the assistance provided by the staffs of the several archives and depositories consulted during the research for this article.