Psychological Medicine

Original Articles

Factors that mediate between child sexual abuse and adult psychological outcome

S. E. Romansa1 c1, J. L. Martina1, J. C. Andersona1, M. L. O'Sheaa1 and P. E. Mullena1

a1 Department of Psychological Medicine, Otago Medical School, Dunedin, New Zealand

Synopsis

The psychological outcome for a random community sample of women who had experienced significant childhood sexual abuse was assessed, using two outcome measures: (i) psychiatric morbidity (measured with the short PSE); (ii) self-esteem. Sexual abused women with a good outcome, i.e. who were not a PSE ‘case’ or who had high self-esteem were compared with abused women with a poor outcome. This paper describes the post-abuse factors that modified the two outcomes.

In general, a range of variables, all correlated with each other in a complex manner, distinguished good outcome subjects from poor outcome subjects. Post-abuse adolescent variables included family factors (poor mother–father and parent–child relationships), high school factors (poor academic, sporting and social performance) and early pregnancy. Women who had a good adolescent relationship with their father did better than expected statistically. Sport emerged as an alternative at secondary school to academic achievement in catalysing a good psychological outcome.

Adult factors included the quality of relationship with partner, which was associated with a good outcome on both measures. Current paid employment was linked to high self-esteem but not to lowered psychiatric morbidity, while the converse applied for high socio-economic status. These findings imply that different processes operate for each outcome measure.

A clear recognition by the school of childhood sexual abuse may help to provide the opportunity for the girl to experience success in some arena; this in turn may protect her against the likely adult consequences of low self-esteem and increased psychiatric morbidity.

Correspondence:

c1 Address for correspondence: Professor S. E. Romans, Department of Psychological Medicine, PO Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand.

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