Psychological Medicine

Original Articles

Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study

A. Baileya1 c1, A. Le Couteura1, I. Gottesmana1, P. Boltona1, E. Simonoffa1, E. Yuzdaa1 and M. Ruttera1

a1 MRC Child Psychiatry Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, London; Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA


Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.


c1 Address for correspondence: Dr A. Bailey, MRC Child Psychiatry Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF.