RNA



A third member of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene family, ADAR3, contains both single- and double-stranded RNA binding domains


CHUN-XIA  CHEN a1, DAN-SUNG C.  CHO a1, QINGDE  WANG a1, FANG  LAI a1, KENNETH C.  CARTER a2 and KAZUKO  NISHIKURA a1c1
a1 The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
a2 Human Genome Sciences, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA

Abstract

Members of the double-stranded RNA- (dsRNA) specific adenosine deaminase gene family convert adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and are involved in A-to-I RNA editing of transcripts of glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and serotonin receptor subtype 2C (5-HT2CR). We have isolated hADAR3, the third member of this class of human enzyme and investigated its editing site selectivity using in vitro RNA editing assay systems. As originally reported for rat ADAR3 or RED2, purified ADAR3 proteins could not edit GluR-B RNA at the “Q/R” site, the “R/G” site, and the intronic “hot spot” site. In addition, ADAR3 did not edit any of five sites discovered recently within the intracellular loop II region of 5-HT2CR RNAs, confirming its total lack of editing activity for currently known substrate RNAs. Filter-binding analyses revealed that ADAR3 is capable of binding not only to dsRNA but also to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Deletion mutagenesis identified a region rich in arginine residues located in the N-terminus that is responsible for binding of ADAR3 to ssRNA. The presence of this ssRNA-binding domain as well as its expression in restricted brain regions and postmitotic neurons make ADAR3 distinct from the other two ADAR gene family members, editing competent ADAR1 and ADAR2. ADAR3 inhibited in vitro the activities of RNA editing enzymes of the ADAR gene family, raising the possibility of a regulatory role in RNA editing.

(Received January 25 2000)
(Revised February 23 2000)
(Accepted March 10 2000)


Key Words: ADAR; adenosine deamination; double-stranded RNA; RNA binding proteins; RNA editing; single-stranded RNA.

Correspondence:
c1 Reprint requests to: Kazuko Nishikura, The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; e-mail: kazuko@wistar.upenn.edu.