Journal of Fluid Mechanics


Turbulent channel flow with either transverse or longitudinal roughness elements on one wall

a1 Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica Università La Sapienza, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184, Roma, Italy
a2 Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 Australia

Article author query
orlandi p   [Google Scholar] 
leonardi s   [Google Scholar] 
antonia ra   [Google Scholar] 


Direct numerical simulation results are presented for turbulent channel flows with two-dimensional roughness elements of different shapes. The focus is mainly on a geometry where the separation between consecutive roughness elements is small and for which the rate of change of the roughness function with respect to the separation between consecutive elements is large. Roughness elements are placed either along the flow direction or orthogonally to it. In the latter case, the drag is increased. For the former case, the possibility of drag reduction reflects the different relative contributions from viscous and Reynolds shear stresses. The Reynolds shear stress depends on the shape of the surface more than the viscous stress and is closely related to the near-wall structures. For orthogonal elements, there is no satisfactory correlation between the roughness function and parameters describing the roughness geometry. On the other hand, a satisfactory collapse of the data is achieved when the roughness function is plotted against the root mean square wall-normal velocity averaged over the plane of the roughness crests. Relative to a smooth wall surface, the Reynolds stress tensor near the wall tends to become more isotropic when the elements are orthogonal to the flow and less isotropic when the elements are aligned with the flow. The interdependencies between the departure from isotropy in the wall region, the organization of the wall structures, and the magnitude of the drag are assessed by examining the rotational component of the turbulent kinetic energy production and the probability density function of the helicity density.

(Published Online August 9 2006)
(Received January 7 2005)
(Revised January 18 2006)