European Journal of Anaesthesiology

Original Article
(RD) Surgery

Patient-controlled analgesia and urinary retention following lower limb joint replacement: prospective audit and logistic regression analysis

J. A. O'Riordan a1c1, P. M. Hopkins a2, A. Ravenscroft a1 and J. D. Stevens a1
a1 Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Halifax Infirmary, Free School Lane, Halifax
a2 Academic Unit of Anaesthesia, St James’s University Hospital, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK

Article author query
o'riordan ja   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hopkins pm   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ravenscroft a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
stevens jd   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


We studied a number of factors that may be associated with urinary retention, in particular the method of postoperative analgesia delivery, in 47 men and 69 women undergoing lower limb joint replacements. The following factors were studied: age, gender, height, weight, previous history of urinary retention, presence of symptoms suggestive of urinary tract obstruction, type of anaesthetic (general anaesthetic or spinal anaesthetic), type of postoperative analgesia (intramuscular or patient-controlled analgesia with morphine) and the total dose of morphine given. Urinary retention developed in 18.1% of patients. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent explanators of an increased probability of developing urinary retention. Three factors emerged – male gender, increasing age and the use of patient-controlled analgesia.

(Published Online August 16 2006)
(Accepted February 2000)

Key Words: analgesia; patient-controlled; complications; urinary retention; arthroplasty; knee; hip.

c1 Correspondence: Dr Julie A. O'Riordan, Huddersfield Royal Infirmary, Lindley, Huddersfield, HD3 3EA.