Cardiology in the Young

Original Article

Factors associated with self-perceived state of health in adolescents with congenital cardiac disease attending paediatric cardiologic clinics

Lynne Kendall a1, Robert J. P. Lewin a2c1, Jonathan M. Parsons a1, Gruschen R. Veldtman a1, Joanne Quirk a1 and Geoffrey F. Hardman a3
a1 Paediatric Cardiac Unit, Yorkshire Heart Centre, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, United Kingdom
a2 British Heart Foundation Rehabilitation Research Unit, University of York, York, United Kingdom
a3 Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, United Kingdom

Article author query
kendall l   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
lewin rj   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
parsons jm   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
veldtman gr   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
quirk j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
hardman gf   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


The purpose of our study was to determine the ways in which adolescents with congenital cardiac disease believed that the condition had affected their life, and how these views were related to their perceived health. Interviews were conducted with a series of 37 adolescents, 17 girls and 20 boys, aged from 11 to 18, as they attended the clinics of 4 paediatric cardiologists in a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed for recurring themes. A questionnaire was formed consisting of a set of questions for each theme, and additional items eliciting “perceived health”, and administered to a second series of 74 adolescents, 40 boys and 34 girls, who were again aged from 11 to 18 years. Slightly less than half (46%) perceived their health as either “good” or “very good”, and one-third (33%) rated it as “average”. The majority (66%) felt themselves to be “the same” as, or only very slightly “different” from, their peers. The assessment of the seriousness of their condition by the adolescents, the degree to which they saw themselves as different from others, and their perceived health, were not related to the “complexity of the underlying medical condition” as rated by their physician. It was the psychosocial themes, such as exclusion from activities or the effect of the condition on relationships, that were most strongly related to the perception of their health by the adolescents. Improved education of parents, teachers and peers, and attendance at classes for cardiac rehabilitation, might help to ameliorate some of these problems.

(Published Online August 15 2006)
(Accepted February 14 2001)

Key Words: Congenital heart disease; perceived health; rehabilitation; psychological factors.

c1 Correspondence to: Professor R. J. P. Lewin, British Heart Foundation Rehabilitation, Research Unit, Genesis 6, York Science Park, University of York, Heslington YO1O 5DG, UK. Tel: 01904 434127/434106; Fax: 01904 434102; E-mail: