Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement

Research Article

Is Drift a Serious Alternative to Natural Selection as an Explanation of Complex Adaptive Traits?

Elliott Sober

‘There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns—the ones we don’t know we don’t know.’ —Donald Rumsfeld, 2003, President George W. Bush’s Secretary of Defense, on the subject of the U.S. government’s failure to discover weapons of mass destruction in Iraq