Mathematical Structures in Computer Science


Classically controlled quantum computation

a1 IMAG, Universities of Grenoble, France Email:,

Article author query
perdrix s   [Google Scholar] 
jorrand p   [Google Scholar] 


It is reasonable to assume that quantum computations take place under the control of the classical world. For modelling this standard situation, we introduce a Classically controlled Quantum Turing Machine (CQTM), which is a Turing machine with a quantum tape for acting on quantum data, and a classical transition function for formalised classical control. In a CQTM, unitary transformations and quantum measurements are allowed. We show that any classical Turing machine can be simulated by a CQTM without loss of efficiency. Furthermore, we show that any $k$-tape CQTM can be simulated by a 2-tape CQTM with a quadratic loss of efficiency. In order to compare CQTMs with existing models of quantum computation, we prove that any uniform family of quantum circuits (Yao 1993) is efficiently approximated by a CQTM. Moreover, we prove that any semi-uniform family of quantum circuits (Nishimura and Ozawa 2002), and any measurement calculus pattern (Danos et al. 2004) are efficiently simulated by a CQTM. Finally, we introduce a Measurement-based Quantum Turing Machine (MQTM), which is a restriction of CQTMs in which only projective measurements are allowed. We prove that any CQTM is efficiently simulated by a MQTM. In order to appreciate the similarity between programming classical Turing machines and programming CQTMs, some examples of CQTMs are given.

(Published Online July 24 2006)
(Received October 15 2005)
(Revised March 27 2006)