Epidemiology and Infection

Distribution of molecular subtypes within Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type 4 and S. Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 in nine European countries, 2000–2004: results of an international multi-centre study

A. J. GATTO a1c1, T. M. PETERS a1, J. GREEN a1, I. S. T. FISHER a1, O. N. GILL a1, S. J. O'BRIEN a1, C. MAGUIRE a1, C. BERGHOLD a2, I. LEDERER a2, P. GERNER-SMIDT a3, M. TORPDAHL a3, A. SIITONEN a4, S. LUKINMAA a4, H. TSCHÄPE a5, R. PRAGER a5, I. LUZZI a6, A. M. DIONISI a6, W. K. VAN DER ZWALUW a7, M. HECK a7, J. COIA a8, D. BROWN a8, M. USERA a9, A. ECHEITA a9 and E. J. THRELFALL a1
a1 Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK
a2 Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Graz, Austria
a3 Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen, Denmark
a4 National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
a5 Robert Koch-Institut, Wernigerode, Germany
a6 Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy
a7 National Institute of Public Health & the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
a8 Scottish Salmonella Reference Laboratory, Glasgow, Scotland
a9 Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

Article author query
gatto aj   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
peters tm   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
green j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
fisher is   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
gill on   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
o'brien sj   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
maguire c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
berghold c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
lederer i   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
gerner-smidt p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
torpdahl m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
siitonen a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
lukinmaa s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
tschape h   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
prager r   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
luzzi i   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
dionisi am   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
van der zwaluw wk   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
heck m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
coia j   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
brown d   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
usera m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
echeita a   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
threlfall ej   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


This study investigates the distribution of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles within Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 and S. Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104, from cases of human infection in nine European countries from 2000 to 2004. Isolates were subtyped using standardized methods and gel images submitted by each participating country to the coordinating centre (Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, UK), where they were entered into a central database, developed within BioNumerics software, and designated using an agreed nomenclature. S. Enteritidis PT4 (n=3637) was differentiated into 38 different profiles. Simpson's index of diversity (D) of profiles ranged from 0·2 to 0·4. Profile SENTXB.0001 represented at least 80% of all profiles in each country. S. Typhimurium DT104 (n=1202) was differentiated into 28 different profile types. Simpson's D was at least 0·6 in all countries except in Austria and Italy. In both these countries over 74% of S. Typhimurium DT104 profiles were STYMXB.0013. Profile STYMXB.0061, was predominant in Denmark, Spain, Finland and England & Wales where it represented between 36% and 45% of profiles. Profile STYMXB.0001 represented nearly half of all profiles in Scotland and 23% in England & Wales. PFGE is proving useful for further discrimination within S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium DT104. Ascertainment of international outbreaks involving common serotypes and phage types may be increased by the timely pooling of PFGE profiles within a central database readily accessible to all participating countries.

(Accepted November 15 2005)
(Published Online January 25 2006)

c1 Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK. (Email: amanda.gatto@hpa.org.uk)