Development and Psychopathology


Other evidence for at least two alcoholisms II: Life course variation in antisociality and heterogeneity of alcoholic outcome

Robert A. Zuckera1 c1, Deborah A. Ellisa2, Hiram E. Fitzgeralda3, C. Raymond Binghama3 and Keith Sanforda3

a1 University of Michigan

a2 Vayne State University School of Medicine

a3 Michigan State University


Within the framework of a cumulation/nesting theory for the emergence of adult psychopathology, a typing structure for alcoholism based upon variations in life course continuity of antisocial behavior over childhood and adulthood was examined for its ability to differentiate symptomatic and life history variations among alcoholic and nonalcoholic men accessed by way of a population-based recruitment strategy. Results supported the theory and identified two alcoholic types, one high on lifetime antisociality (antisocial alcoholic = AAL), the other low (nonantisocial alcoholic = NAAL), and a third nonalcoholic type with low lifetime antisociality. Types differed in age of onset, severity, number, and life course of alcohol problems, measures of social adaptation, amount and severity of other psychopathology, and salience of family history load of alcoholism. Antisociality and alcoholism tended to be nested characteristics.


c1 Robert A. Zucker, University of Michigan Alcohol Research Center, 400 E. Eisenhower Parkway, Ste. 2A, Ann Arbor, MI 48108–3318 (E-mail: