Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

Demographic and cognitive predictors of long-term psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury

a1 Department of Psychology, School of Human Sciences, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, United Kingdom

Article author query
wood rl   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
rutterford na   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


Demographic factors and cognitive impairment have been found previously to have associations with outcome after brain injury. Kendall and Terry (1996) suggest that preinjury psychosocial functioning, neurological factors, and cognitive impairment have a direct relationship with multidimensional psychosocial adjustment, but that cognitive impairment also has an indirect relationship by means of the mediation of appraisal and coping variables. The aim of this study was to explore these theoretical relationships at very late stages of recovery after brain injury. A total of 131 participants who were more than 10 years after injury (mean = 15.31 yr) completed a neuropsychological assessment, plus outcome measures that included employment status, community integration, life satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), and emotion. Results indicated that injury severity was predictive of life satisfaction; gender and relationship status predicted community integration; and age at injury predicted employment status. Impairment in working memory directly predicted all outcomes except QoL and anxiety. An indirect relationship was also evident between working memory, life satisfaction, and depression. Results partially support Kendall and Terry's model but the variables that significantly influence outcome seem to be determined by the outcome dimensions selected. (JINS, 2006, 12, 350–358.)

(Received June 27 2005)
(Revised January 18 2006)
(Accepted January 19 2006)

Key Words: Brain injuries; Outcome studies; Demographic factors; Neuropsychological tests; Injury severity; Social adjustment.

c1 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Rodger Ll. Wood, Psychology Department, School of Human Sciences, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK. E-mail: