Behavioral and Brain Sciences



Main Article

Money as tool, money as drug: The biological psychology of a strong incentive


Stephen E. G. Lea a1 and Paul Webley a1
a1 University of Exeter, School of Psychology, Washington Singer Laboratories, Exeter EX4 4QG, United Kingdom. S.E.G.Lea@exeter.ac.uk http://www.exeter.ac.uk/~SEGLea P.Webley@exeter.ac.uk http://www.exeter.ac.uk/~pwebley

Article author query
lea se   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
webley p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 

Abstract

Why are people interested in money? Specifically, what could be the biological basis for the extraordinary incentive and reinforcing power of money, which seems to be unique to the human species? We identify two ways in which a commodity which is of no biological significance in itself can become a strong motivator. The first is if it is used as a tool, and by a metaphorical extension this is often applied to money: it is used instrumentally, in order to obtain biologically relevant incentives. Second, substances can be strong motivators because they imitate the action of natural incentives but do not produce the fitness gains for which those incentives are instinctively sought. The classic examples of this process are psychoactive drugs, but we argue that the drug concept can also be extended metaphorically to provide an account of money motivation. From a review of theoretical and empirical literature about money, we conclude that (i) there are a number of phenomena that cannot be accounted for by a pure Tool Theory of money motivation; (ii) supplementing Tool Theory with a Drug Theory enables the anomalous phenomena to be explained; and (iii) the human instincts that, according to a Drug Theory, money parasitizes include trading (derived from reciprocal altruism) and object play.

(Published Online April 5 2006)


Key Words: economic behaviour; evolutionary psychology; giving; incentive; money; motivation; play; reciprocal altruism.