a1 Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600 036, India
a2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, U.S.A.
This article poses the notion that it is possible and desirable to formalize and apply design critiques in a specialized framework. It describes GENCRIT, (GENeric CRItiquing Tool), one such framework for design critiquing. The article starts by highlighting the role of critics in the design process. It then goes on to bring out the need for a critic building tool, viz. that of aiding in the rapid development of multiple critics. GENCRIT combines knowledge-based techniques and a multifactor decision making model to develop an integrated approach to evaluation that encompasses a wide range of designs. Critics developed using GENCRIT evaluate candidate designs based on the critiquing knowledge provided by experts, give justifications for the evaluation, and suggest improvements. The working of GENCRIT is illustrated with two examples: a constructibility critic for reinforced concrete buildings and a bridge design critic.
(Received September 06 1993)
(Accepted March 25 1994)
H. Shiva Kumar is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Civil Engineering Department at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. His research interests include design criticism, case-based reasoning, and integrated knowledgebased systems in general. He received the M.E. degree in structural engineering from Bharatiyar University, Coimbatore, in 1990 and the B.Tech degree in civil engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, in 1988.
S. Suresh is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Civil Engineering Department at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. His research interests include design synthesis and criticism, and integrated knowledge-based systems for cooperative design in general. He received the B.Tech and M.S. degrees in civil engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, in 1987 and 1990, respectively.
C.S. Krishnamoorthy is Professor of Structural Engineering in the Department of Civil Engineering and Dean of Academic Research at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. He received the Ph.D. degree from the University of London in 1972. He obtained the B.E. (Hons) and M.Sc. (Engineering) degrees from the University of Madras. His current research interests include adaptive finite-element analysis, structural optimization, and knowledge-based expert systems. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Structural Engineers, London; a Fellow of the Institute of Engineers, India; and a Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering.
S. Rajeev is Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. He received the Ph.D. degree in civil engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, in 1993. He obtained the B.Tech degree in civil engineering from the University of Kerala in 1978 and the M.Tech degree in structural engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, in 1980. His research interests include genetic algorithmbased methodologies for structural optimization, and knowledge-based systems and computer applications in engineering.
S.J. Fenves is Sun Company University Professor of Civil Engineering and serves on the Directors’ Committee of the Engineering Design Research Center at the Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in civil engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1957, 1958, and 1961, respectively. His research interests include knowledge-based systems for civil engineering applications, representation and processing of design standards, integrated design databases, parallel computing and sparse matrix techniques for computational mechanics problems, and courseware for engineering education including use of generic software. He is an Honorary Member of the American Society of Civil Engineering and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.