A steady separated viscous corner flow
An example is presented of a separated flow in an unbounded domain in which, as the Reynolds number becomes large, the separated region remains of size 0(1) and tends to a non-trivial Prandtl-Batchelor flow. The multigrid method is used to obtain rapid convergence to the solution of the discretized Navier-Stokes equations at Reynolds numbers of up to 5000. Extremely fine grids and tests of an integral property of the flow ensure accuracy. The flow exhibits the separation of a boundary layer with ensuing formation of a downstream eddy and reattachment of a free shear layer. The asymptotic (’triple deck’) theory of laminar separation from a leading edge, due to Sychev (1979), is clarified and compared to the numerical solutions. Much better qualitative agreement is obtained than has been reported previously. Together with a plausible choice of two free parameters, the data can be extrapolated to infinite Reynolds number, giving quantitative agreement with triple-deck theory with errors of 20% or less. The development of a region of constant vorticity is observed in the downstream eddy, and the global infinite-Reynolds-number limit is a Prandtl-Batchelor flow; however, when the plate is stationary, the occurrence of secondary separation suggests that the limiting flow contains an infinite sequence of eddies behind the separation point. Secondary separation can be averted by driving the plate, and in this case the limit is a single-vortex Prandtl-Batchelor flow of the type found by Moore, Saffman & Tanveer (1988); detailed, encouraging comparisons are made to the vortex-sheet strength and position. Altering the boundary condition on the plate gives viscous eddies that approximate different members of the family of inviscid solutions.(Published Online April 26 2006)
(Received June 15 1990)
(Revised January 2 1991)
p1 Current address: Program in Applied Mathematics, Campus Box 526, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO 80309–0526, USA.