Nonlinear free-surface flow at a two-dimensional bow
Unsteady free-surface flow at the bow of a steadily moving, two-dimensional body is solved using a modified Eulerian-Lagrangian technique. Lagrangian marker particles are distributed on both the free surface and the far-field boundary. The flow field corresponding to an inviscid, double-body solution is used for the initial condition. Solutions are obtained over a range of Froude numbers for bodies of three different shapes: a vertical step, a faired profile, and a bulbous bow. A transition Froude number exists at which the bow wave begins to overturn and break. The value of the transition Froude number depends on the bow shape. A stagnation point is observed to be present below the free surface during the initial stage of the wave formation. For flows occurring above the transition Froude number, the stagnation point remains trapped below the free surface as the wave overturns. Below the transition Froude number, the stagnation point rises to the surface as the crest of the transient bow wave moves upstream and away from the body.(Published Online April 26 2006)
(Received May 2 1988)
(Revised April 17 1989)
p1 Present address: Department of Ocean Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.