Journal of Tropical Ecology

Dispersal of Canarium euphyllum (Burseraceae), a large-seeded tree species, in a moist evergreen forest in Thailand

Shumpei Kitamura a1a3c1, Shunsuke Suzuki a2, Takakazu Yumoto a1a4, Pilai Poonswad a3, Phitaya Chuailua a3, Kamol Plongmai a3, Tamaki Maruhashi a5, Naohiko Noma a2 and Chumphon Suckasam a6
a1 Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kamitanakami-Hirano, Otsu 520–2113, Japan
a2 School of Environmental Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone 522–8533, Japan
a3 Thailand Hornbill Project, c/o Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Bangkok 10400, Thailand
a4 Research Institute of Humanity and Nature, Kyoto 602–0878, Japan
a5 Department of Human and Culture, Musashi University, Nerima, Tokyo 176–8534, Japan
a6 National Parks Division, Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Phaholyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Article author query
kitamura s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
suzuki s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
yumoto t   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
poonswad p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
chuailua p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
plongmai k   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
maruhashi t   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
noma n   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
suckasam c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


We investigated the dispersal of a large-seeded tree species, Canarium euphyllum (Burseraceae), in the moist evergreen forests of the Khao Yai National Park in Thailand. By combining direct observations of fruit consumption in tree canopies (543 h) and the camera-trapping observations of fallen fruit consumption on the forest floor (175 camera-days), we identified the frugivore assemblage that foraged on the fruits of C. euphyllum and assessed their role in seed dispersal and seed predation. In the canopy, our results showed that seeds were dispersed by a limited set of frugivores, one pigeon and four hornbill species, and predated by two species of squirrel. On the forest floor, seven mammal species consumed fallen fruits. A combination of high rates of fruit removal and short visiting times of mountain imperial pigeons (Ducula badia) and hornbills (Buceros bicornis, Aceros undulatus, Anorrhinus austeni and Anthracoceros albirostris) led us to conclude that these large frugivorous birds provide effective seed dispersal for this tree species, in terms of quantity. These frugivorous species often have low tolerance to negative human impacts and loss of these dispersers would have severe deleterious consequences for the successful regeneration of C. euphyllum.

(Accepted August 10 2005)

Key Words: camera trapping; frugivore; frugivory; ground squirrels; hornbills; imperial pigeons; rodents; seed dispersal; seed predation; squirrels.

c1 Corresponding author. Present address: Thailand Hornbill Project, c/o Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Rd., Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Email: