Journal of Fluid Mechanics

Axisymmetric withdrawal and inflow in a density-stratified container

G. N.  Ivey a1 and S.  Blake a1
a1 Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601

Article author query
ivey gn   [Google Scholar] 
blake s   [Google Scholar] 


The axisymmetric withdrawal of fluid from a linearly stratified container is studied over the full parameter range. When only buoyancy and inertia are important the flow in the withdrawal layer is influenced by a virtual control point and is not analogous to that observed in the two-dimensional withdrawal problem. Two further flow regimes are shown to exist in which viscous forces are important: one in which convection of species is important, and a second in which diffusion of species is important. Theoretical arguments and laboratory experiments are used to show that $S = (Q^2N/\nu^3)^{\frac{1}{15}}$ is the appropriate flow parameter to differentiate between these possibilities. It is also argued that these results may be generalized to describe the features of several related flows: axisymmetric drawdown (or drawup) in withdrawal from a layered density structure, axisymmetric inflow into a linearly stratified environment and the axisymmetric spreading of density currents.

(Published Online April 21 2006)
(Received August 5 1984)
(Revised May 15 1985)