Journal of Dairy Research

Increased remineralization of tooth enamel by milk containing added casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate

Glenn Walker a1, Fan Cai a1, Peiyan Shen a1, Coralie Reynolds a1, Brent Ward a1, Christopher Fone a1, Shuji Honda a2, Megumi Koganei a2, Munehiro Oda a2 and Eric Reynolds a1c1
a1 Centre for Oral Health Science, School of Dental Science, The University of Melbourne, Australia
a2 Meiji Dairies Corporation, Japan

Article author query
walker g   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
cai f   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
shen p   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
reynolds c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
ward b   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
fone c   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
honda s   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
koganei m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
oda m   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 
reynolds e   [PubMed][Google Scholar] 


Casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplexes (CPP-ACP) in chewing gum, lozenges and mouthrinses have been shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in human in situ experiments. The aim of this double-blind, randomized clinical study was to investigate the capacity of CPP-ACP added to bovine milk to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. Ten subjects drank milk containing either 2·0 or 5·0 g CPP-ACP/l or a control milk whilst wearing removable appliances with enamel slabs containing subsurface demineralized lesions. Each 200 ml milk sample was consumed once a day for each weekday over three consecutive weeks. After each treatment and one weeks rest the subjects crossed over to the other treatments. At the completion of the treatments the enamel slabs were removed and remineralization determined using microradiography and microdensitometry. The results demonstrated that all three milk samples remineralized enamel subsurface lesions. However, the milk samples containing CPP-ACP produced significantly greater remineralization than the control milk. The remineralising effect of CPP-ACP in milk was dose-dependent with 2·0 and 5·0 g CPP-ACP/l producing an increase in mineral content of 70 and 148%, respectively, relative to the control milk. The differences in remineralization following exposure to the three milk samples were all statistically significant (P<0·001). In conclusion, this study shows that the addition of 2·0–5·0 g CPP-ACP/l to milk substantially increases its ability to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions.

(Published Online January 24 2006)
(Received August 17 2004)
(Accepted May 17 2005)

Key Words: Casein phosphopeptide; amorphous calcium phosphate; milk; remineralization; tooth enamel.

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